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Values and Attitudes: Ngā Uara, Ngā Waiaro

Te Marautanga o Aotearoa Whakapākehātanga

"Be content Be humble Be open hearted towards friends And toward all peoples"

Along with knowledge and skills, values and attitudes play an important role in Te Marautanga o Aotearoa. Values are beliefs and principles that govern behaviour and are deeply embedded within a person or group. Values and attitudes are a key part of what a learner learns through their experiences in their wider environment. The values of the school and the whānau shall be reflected in the school-based curriculum.


This section summarises some of the most important values and attitudes to be gained by learners in Māori-medium settings. The principles of the Curriculum reinforce the need for schools, whānau, hapū, iwi and community to work collaboratively to determine their own values and attitudes.

Individual Learners Develop Values and Attitudes:
  • that provide confidence through integrity, generosity of spirit and peacefulness;
  • which give a clear sense of personal identity, a high level of personal awareness and selfworth;
  • of empathy and regard for friends and for the school whānau;
  • which lead to a desire to participate in all school learning activities, whether by contributing ideas, reading or listening;
  • which grow an enduring respect for the value of education;
  • of understanding, awareness and aptitude in all learning as a guide into the contemporary world;
  • which help them to identify and understand their own personal values and beliefs.
Knowing Traditional Māori Values:

The learner:

  • understands the values of their whānau, hapū and iwi, enabling access to the Māori world;
  • is generous and caring for visitors;
  • knows their identity and origins;
  • knows their genealogy and whakapapa links;
  • works co-operatively with peers and in groups.
Understanding the Values of the Wider World:

The learner:

  • acknowledges people, regardless of who or where they are, or their appearance;
  • the learner is respectful of the mana and spirituality of each person and each whānau, and their attitudes and values, even if these differ from their own.

The Māori Language: Te Reo Māori

"The language is the life force of Māori Through being spoken the language lives Through the survival of the language Māori are enobled"

Māori language is the vehicle for Māori cultural practices and thought, enabling the manifestation of all aspects of the Māori world. The Māori language is an inherited treasure, a treasure supported by the Treaty of Waitangi. Language is the essence of culture. Each person, each tribal group, each region has its own language, mana, spirituality, beliefs and customs. Ultimately it is through Māori language that the full range of Māori customs can be expressed, practised, and explained. Through the learner knowing Māori language, they can access the Māori world and understand their role in it. Being immersed in Māori leads the learner to greater proficiency. In this approach the Māori language is also the medium of instruction for all learning areas. While the vocabulary and language of this curriculum has been standardised (for ease of reading), dialectal variation is encouraged.


Outlined here are some language aspirations through which the learner will gain competence in Māori language and the Māori world.

The Learner Achieves their Māori Language Potential

  • can use their language in a range of settings, and for a wide range of purposes, issues, and audiences;
  • is able to adapt their language to suit the context and audience;
  • communicates easily, regardless of who they are speaking with, or which tribal dialect is used;
  • develops good listening skills making speaking, writing, presenting and viewing easier.

The Learner Attains High Educational Levels through Māori Language

  • can use their language skills in a wide range of contexts;
  • can carry themselves with ease, confidence and competence through the medium of Māori language;
  • has acquired the academic language of each learning area to understand the depth of a subject.

The Learner Achieves their Linguistic Potential

  • is competent in Māori and English, and a third language if desired by the whānau.

Personal Enhancement through Educational Achievement: He Toi Mātauranga, he Mana Tangata

"Through vision a house is built Through education it is stabilised"

When a learner arrives at school they have existing knowledge that stems from the family. Both contemporary and traditional Māori customs and knowledge need to be respected. Knowledge is embedded within beliefs, values and cultural practices. Each cultural practice has its own value, its own links. Schools should ease the way for the inclusion of whānau, hapū, iwi and community knowledge.

Following are some of the most important considerations in choosing knowledge and skills relevant to the learner. The principles of the Curriculum support schools, whānau, hapū, iwi and community working collaboratively to design purposeful education.

The World of the Learner

  • the starting point for all new learning should be the learner’s own knowledge;
  • new knowledge is easier to learn if it is linked to the learner's existing knowledge;
  • learners, whānau, hap# and iwi should be acknowledged as holding valid learner-based, tribal-based and local forms of knowledge;
  • schools should actively invite the holders of traditional knowledge in their whānau, hapū and iwi to engage with learners;
  • a range of places generate learning for learners;
  • education should be useful to the learner, the school, and the iwi;
  • the learner should achieve their academic potential within their world.

The Old World, the Contemporary World, the New World

  • knowledge from the old world has a real purpose as the foundation from which new knowledge is produced;
  • learners need to understand that systems of knowledge are changing;
  • there is ongoing debate about which knowledge is valid;
  • learners and families can create new knowledge.

The Global World

  • an understanding that knowledge arises from the systems of each people, and each country;
  • an understanding that knowledge comes from oral, written, and digital texts;
  • the learner should achieve their academic potential in the global world.

Teaching and Learning: Ngā āhuatanga Ako

The learner is the basis of teaching and learning, and Te Marautanga o Aotearoa is one of the factors that influences teaching and learning of the student. Learners are influenced also by their experiences, values and beliefs. There are many other factors that affect learning such as the classroom environment, and the expectations and beliefs of teachers, peers, family and community. The teaching and learning process is the main focus of the classroom. Learners and teachers need to establish effective relationships which focus on student learning in order to develop the unique characteristics of each learner.

Development of a Māori Learning Environment

  • Learning environments extend to the marae, and to different environments in the local area and further afield;
  • Appropriate practices are used to settle and prepare learners mentally and emotionally, to meet their needs and enable learners to learn effectively;
  • Teaching and learning practices support the charter of the school (i.e. Te Aho Matua or kura-ā-iwi charters);
  • All aspects of teaching and learning are approached positively and with enthusiasm;
  • Teachers and schools understand the effect of the wider learning environment on learning in the classroom.

Development of a Cognitively Stimulating Learning Environment

The learner:

  • values education;
  • is cognitively challenged and stimulated;
  • develops skills in numeracy and problem solving, physical skills, and work skills;
  • is supported to work independently when required so as not to rely on the teacher and their peers at all times.

Development of Learning Pathways

  • Each learner has different and unique ways of learning. A particular approach may suit some learners, while a different approach will suit others;
  • Learning styles are affected by such things as: preparation, the organisation of work, how thoughts are organised, topics, environmental factors, perceptions and motivation to learn;
  • Learners do better if they understand what they are learning and if the learning is meaningful;
  • New learning is more effective when it is linked to previous learning.

The Development of E-Learning

E-Learning is learning that is encouraged and supported by information technology and communication technology. Information technology is critical to this generation, and is an effective means of teaching and learning. E-Learning allows:

  • easy access to knowledge in New Zealand and the wider world from the school or home;
  • the learner and community to learn together;
  • the learner to have varied experiences, and experiences beyond the school and home.

Organising Valid Assessment

Assessment plays an important role in the Curriculum. Excellence in teaching and learning is inextricably linked to assessment. The key purpose of assessment is to enhance student learning and the quality of teaching and learning programmes. Assessment also enables the provision of feedback to both parents and learners about learning progress. Assessment is linked to qualifications at secondary school. The following are some principles of assessment:

  • worthwhile to the learner, accurate and reliable. The learner understands what they are learning;
  • learners engage in assessment practices. Learners negotiate and discuss their aims, strategies and progressions with their teachers and parents and with each other;
  • assessment supports improved learning;
  • assessment is seen as positive, rather than a process to be feared;
  • each assessment activity has a clear purpose. As such, assessment should be valid and relevant to its intended purpose.

School-Wide Assessment Practices

Schools need to know what the learning outcomes are for learners. Accordingly, at times school-wide data should be collected and analysed. Schools do this to modify their policies, teaching programmes and teaching activities in order to improve learning outcomes.

The Inquiry Learning and Knowledge Creation Cycle: Te Hurihanga Whakaako Pakirehua me te Waihanga Mātauranga

  • What are the essential learning outcomes for students from the Curriculum and community?
  • Evaluate how students are progressing in relation to those learning outcomes (use the graduate profile as a guide).
  • What knowledge and skills do teachers require to support learners to link their learning to the new learning outcomes?
  • How can administrators, whānau and iwi support teachers to raise student learning/achievement?
    — To ease/assist students into new experiences.
    — To strengthen teachers’ knowledge and skills.
  • What are the benefits of the activities for the learners?
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